Fiscal Data

Fiscal Data

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This section covers data on government spending, tax revenues and public sector debt. Medieval fiscal data is available back to 991 with a payment of £10,000 of Danegeld recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle.  The pipe rolls and Exchequer accounts then supply much of our knowledge of fiscal data through to the late C17th when the data obtained from Parliamentary Reports begin.  The latest official data based on the Public Sector Analytical Tables start in 1946 and are made available here given their long back run.  The Bank’s Millennium dataset contains summaries of much of this data.  Links are made to various recent research datasets on spending, revenue and the national debt such as the European State Finance Database and the work of Wilkie and Cairns, and Ellison and Scott on the National Debt and its structure. Publications such as Pember and Boyle’s British Government Securities in the C20th and various Parliamentary Reports are also provided.

Public Expenditure and Revenue
The National Debt Official Data

Official ONS data on the Public Sector spending and revenue is available on the Public Sector Finances section of the ONS website. The public sector analytical tables (PSAT) contain data for central government, local government and public corporations back to 1946 and are consistent with the official National Accounts. Editions of Public Finance Trends, published by the ONS in the mid-1990s, are also available for the following yearsThe Debt Management Office (DMO) also provide detailed data on the composition of government debt on their website.
Government Spending and Revenue

Much of what we know about fiscal spending and revenue from the late C17th comes from a Parliamentary report prepared by H.S. Chisholm, the Chief Clerk of the Exchequer, in 1869. This is available online in the HathiTrust digital archive alongside a useful historical report from the Commissioners of Inland Revenue. Chisholm's report however is known to contain inaccuracies and misses some elements of public sector finances.  Professor Patrick O'Brien's thesis British Government Revenue 1793-1815: a study in fiscal and financial policy in the wars against France from 1967 discusses some these issues and how they affect the estimates of public borrowing in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.  With thanks to Professor O'Brien this thesis has been digitised as part of this project and is available in the Oxford University Research Archive. Analysis of Government Budgets

Sir Bernard Mallet's series on British Budgets in the late C19th and early C20th are available belowAlso available in HathiTrust is Kirkaldy's study of Government war finance between 1914 and 1921. A useful factsheet on the budget from 2010 is available with a list of chancellors and budget dates since 1900The National Debt

Two Parliamentary reports in 1891 and 1898 provide a complete history of the National Debt from 1694 to 1890. Fenn's Compendium of English and Foreign Funds contains a wide variety of statistics and discussion related the National Debt and other financial information. Many editions have been digitised by Google. Those editions out of copyright and currently provided free are available from the Internet Archive and listed below.Pember and Boyle's volumes covering the National Debt in the C20th are available in the Articles and Periodicals Section.

From 1960 the Bank of England published a regular analysis on the distribution and composition of national debt in its Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin until 2002. From 1998 the Bank's debt management responsibilities were handed to the newly-formed Debt Management Office (DMO). The Bank's analyses are available for the financial years ending below:

Articles on the Distribution of the National Debt

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

Articles on Total Public Sector Net Debt

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
The following titles are available to select in the dropdown menus of this section.

  • The set of volumes by Pember and Boyle on British Government Securities (with the kind permission of Deutsche Bank)
  • Parliamentary Reports including Financial Statements and Budget Reports from 1969/70 (more to follow)
  • Social Security statistics (coming soon)
Please select a publication title and year from the boxes below to narrow down the list. The available excel and pdf files are shown in the table. If the publication you are looking for is not in this section please see the complete list of downloadable publications. 
Article NameExcel FilePDF File
British Government Securities in the Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - 1st edition 1945 No Excel File
British Government Securities in the Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - 1st Supplement Mar 1948 No Excel File
British Government Securities In The Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - Second Edition 1950 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1969-70 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1970-71 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1971-72 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1972-73 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1973-74 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1974-75 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1975-76 No Excel File
British Government Securities In The Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - Supplement 1950-1976 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1976-77 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1977-78 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1978-79 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1979-80 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1980-81 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1981-82 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1982-83 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1983-84 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1984-85 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1985-86 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1986-87 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1987-88 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1988-89 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1989-90 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1990-91 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1991-92 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1992-93 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1993-94 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1994-95 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1995-96 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1996-97 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1997-98 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 1999 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2000 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2001 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2002 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2003 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2004 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2005 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2006 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2007 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2008 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2009 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report Mar 2010 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report Jun 2010 No Excel File
Budget Report 2011 No Excel File
Budget Report 2012 No Excel File
Budget Report 2013 No Excel File
Budget Report 2014 No Excel File
Budget Report Mar 2015 No Excel File
Budget Report Jul 2015 No Excel File
Budget Report 2016 No Excel File
Budget Report Mar 2017 No Excel File
Budget Report Nov 2017 No Excel File
Budget Report 2018 No Excel File