Fiscal Data

Fiscal Data

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Fiscal Data- Overview

This section covers data on government spending, tax revenues and public sector debt. Medieval fiscal data is available back to 991 with a payment of £10,000 of Danegeld recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle.  The pipe rolls and Exchequer accounts then supply much of our knowledge of fiscal data through to the late C17th when the data obtained from Parliamentary Reports begin.  The latest official data based on the Public Sector Analytical Tables start in 1946 and are made available here given their long back run.  The Bank’s Millennium dataset contains summaries of much of this data.  Links are made to various recent research datasets on spending, revenue and the national debt such as the European State Finance Database and the work of Wilkie and Cairns, and Ellison and Scott on the National Debt and its structure. Publications such as Pember and Boyle’s British Government Securities in the C20th and various Parliamentary Reports are also provided.

Public Expenditure and Revenue

The National Debt

The National Debt in the UK has a long history stretching back to the late C17th. It specifically represented the liabilities of the Exchequer or Consolidated Fund (and after 1968 the National Loans Fund) and so was a measure of central government debt. But it was not a consolidated measure as it did not net off the holdings of other central government bodies managed by the National Debt Commissioners and so did not represent the amount held in the market at any one time. From the late C19th it also became less representative of the public sector's overall debt as local authorities and public corporations began to issue debt, some of which was guaranteed by central government. For this reason measures of public sector debt became more important after the Second World War. Key sources of long time series on the national and public sector debt data are given below:

  • The Fiscal section of Millennium of Macroeconomic Data v3.1 (xls), contains long annual time series of the national and public sector debt at par and market values up to the present day based on Clark (2001), parliamentary reports in the Sources, Methods and Uses section and the volumes by Pember and Boyle which can be found in the Relevant Periodicals section below.
  • Monthly data on the market value of the national debt back to 1694 has very recently been put together by Martin Ellison and Andrew Scott can be found here
  • Monthly data on the price and quantity of government securities since 1964 can also be found in the  Heriot-Watt University and Institute and Faculty of Actuaries British Government Securities Database maintained by David Wilkie  and Andrew Cairns

Official Data

Official ONS data on the Public Sector spending and revenue is available on the Public Sector Finances section of the ONS website. The public sector analytical tables (PSAT) contain data for central government, local government and public corporations back to 1946 and are consistent with the official National Accounts. Editions of Public Finance Trends, published by the ONS in the mid-1990s, are also available for the following years The Debt Management Office (DMO) also provide detailed data on the composition of government debt on their website. More data can be found in the Relevant Periodicals section which contain a range of public spending and budget documents over the past 100 years.

Public Expenditure and Revenue

Much of what we know about fiscal spending and revenue from the late C17th comes from a Parliamentary report prepared by H.S. Chisholm, the Chief Clerk of the Exchequer, in 1869. This is available online in the HathiTrust digital archive alongside a useful historical report from the Commissioners of Inland Revenue. Chisholm's report however is known to contain inaccuracies and misses some elements of public sector finances.  Professor Patrick O'Brien's thesis British Government Revenue 1793-1815: a study in fiscal and financial policy in the wars against France from 1967 discusses some these issues and how they affect the estimates of public borrowing in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.  With thanks to Professor O'Brien this thesis has been digitised as part of this project and is available in the Oxford University Research Archive.

Analysis of Government Budgets

Sir Bernard Mallet's series on British Budgets in the late C19th and early C20th are available below Also available in HathiTrust is Kirkaldy's study of Government war finance between 1914 and 1921. A useful factsheet on the budget from 2010 is available with a list of chancellors and budget dates since 1900

The Evolution of the National Debt

Two Parliamentary reports in 1891 and 1898 provide a complete history of the National Debt from 1694 to 1890. Fenn's Compendium of English and Foreign Funds contains a wide variety of statistics and discussion related the National Debt and other financial information. Many editions have been digitised by Google. Those editions out of copyright and currently provided free are available from the Internet Archive and listed below. Pember and Boyle's volumes covering the National Debt in the C20th are available in the Relevant Periodicals Section and cover the history of the national debt and government guaranteed securities between 1900 and 1975. Importantly they contain details on the published holdings of the National Debt Commissioners on a stock-by-stock basis allowing market holdings to be derived for each security.

The Radcliffe Report and an Economic Trends article of 1961 provide a discussion of debt management and an analysis of the debt by holder, providing a more detailed breakdown of holdings of the national debt by different sectors within the market as well as other official holdings by the Bank of England and the Exchange Equalisation Account between 1935 and 1957. From 1960 the Bank of England published a regular analysis on the distribution and composition of the national debt and, from 1986, public sector net debt, in its Bank of England Quarterly Bulletin until 2002. From 1998 the Bank's debt management responsibilities were handed to the newly-formed Debt Management Office (DMO). The Bank's analyses are available for the financial years ending below and provide a complete history back to 1958 when the Radcliffe Report data ends:

Articles on the Distribution of the National Debt

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

Articles on Total Public Sector Net Debt

1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

ONS guides to the development of public sector debt measures over time can be found below:
The following titles are available to select in the dropdown menus of this section.

  • The set of volumes by Pember and Boyle on British Government Securities (with the kind permission of Deutsche Bank)
  • Parliamentary Reports including Financial Statements and Budget Reports from 1969/70 (more to follow)
  • Social Security statistics (coming soon)
  • The Effects of Taxes and Benefits on Household Income

Please select a publication title and year from the boxes below to narrow down the list. Alternatively type in a general search term. The available excel and pdf files are shown in the table. If the publication you are looking for is not in this section please see the complete list of downloadable publications

Select Publication or Input Search Term

Article Name Excel File PDF File
Financial Statement 1920-1921 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1921-1922 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1922-23 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1923-24 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1924-25 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1925-26 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1926-27 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1927-28 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1928-29 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1929-30 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1930-31 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1931-32 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1937-38 No Excel File
Financial Statement (Revised) 1939-40 No Excel File
Revised Financial Statement 1939-40 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1941-42 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1942-43 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1944 No Excel File
British Government Securities in the Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - 1st edition 1945 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1944-45 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1946 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1945-46 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1947 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1946-47 No Excel File
British Government Securities in the Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - 1st Supplement Mar 1948 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1948 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1947-48 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1949 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1948-49 No Excel File
British Government Securities In The Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - Second Edition 1950 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1950 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1949-50 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1951 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1950-51 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1952 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1951-52 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1953 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1952-53 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1953-54 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1954-55 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1955-56 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1956-57 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1958 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1957-58 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1959 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1958-59 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1959-60 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1961 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1960-61 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1961-62 No Excel File No PDF File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1961 and 1962 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1962 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1962-63 No Excel File No PDF File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1963 No Excel File
Public Expenditure In 1963-64 And 1967-68 - December 1963 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1963-64 No Excel File No PDF File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1963 and 1964 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1964 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1964-65 No Excel File No PDF File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1965 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1965-66 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1965 and 1966 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1966 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Planning And Control - February 1966 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1966-67 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1967 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1967 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1967-68 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1968 No Excel File
Public Income And Expenditure Year Ended 31st March 1968 No Excel File
Public Expenditure In 1968-69 And 1969-70 - January 1968 No Excel File
Financial Statement 1968-69 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1969 No Excel File
Public Expenditure - A New Presentation April 1969 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1968-69 To 1973-74 - December 1969 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1969-70 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1970 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1970-71 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1971 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1969-70 To 1974-75 - January 1971 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1975-76 - November 1971 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1971-72 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1972 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1976-77 - December 1972 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1972 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1972-73 No Excel File
The incidence of taxes and social service benefits in 1973 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1977-78 - December 1973 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1973 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1973-74 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1974 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1974 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1974-75 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1975 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1978-79 - January 1975 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1975 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1975-76 No Excel File
British Government Securities In The Twentieth Century - Pember & Boyle - Supplement 1950-1976 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1976 No Excel File
Public Expenditure To 1979-80 - February 1976 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1976 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1976-77 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1977 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1977 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1977-78 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1978 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1978 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1978-79 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1979 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1979-80 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1980 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1980 (inc. 1979) No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1980-81 No Excel File
Effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1981 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1981 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1981-82 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1982 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1982 HM Treasury November 1982 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1982 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1982-83 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1983 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1983 HM Treasury November 1983 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1983 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1983-84 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1984 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1984 HM Treasury November 1984 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1984 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1984-85 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1985 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1985 HM Treasury November 1985 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1985 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1985-86 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1986 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1986 HM Treasury November 1986 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1986 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1986-87 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1987 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1987 HM Treasury November 1987 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1987 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1987-88 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1988 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1988 HM Treasury November 1988 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1988 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1988-89 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1989 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1989 HM Treasury November 1989 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1989 No Excel File
Financial Statement and Budget Report 1989-90 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1990 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1990 HM Treasury November 1990 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Analyses to 1993-94 Statistical Supplement To The 1990 Autumn Statement No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1990 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1990-91 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1991 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Analyses To 1994-95 Statistical Supplement To The 1991 Autumn Statement No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1991 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1992 No Excel File
Autumn Statement 1992 HM Treasury November 1992 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Analyses To 1995-96 Statistical Supplement To The 1992 Autumn Statement No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1992 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1992-93 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1993 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1993 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1993-94 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Supplement To The Financial Statement & Budget Report 1994-95 February 1994 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1994 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1994-95 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1994/95 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Supplement To The Financial Statement & Budget Report 1995-96 February 1995 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1995 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1995-96 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1995/96 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 1996-97 - HM Treasury March 1996 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1996 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1996-97 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 1996/1997 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 1997-98 - HM Treasury March 1997 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1997 No Excel File
Financial Statement & Budget Report 1997-98 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 1998-99 - HM Treasury April 1998 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1998 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 1999 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 1999-00 - HM Treasury March 1999 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 1999 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2000 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2000-01 HM Treasury April 2000 No Excel File
Social Security Statistics 2000 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2001 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2001 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2001-02 - HM Treasury April 2001 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2002 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2002 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2002-03 - HM Treasury May 2002 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2003 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2003 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2003 - HM Treasury May 2003 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2004 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 2003/2004 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2004 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2004 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2005 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2005 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2005 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2006 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 2005/2006 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2006 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2006 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2007 No Excel File
Pre-Budget Report 2007 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2007 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2008 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2008 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report 2009 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 2008/2009 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2009 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report Mar 2010 No Excel File
EFSR Financial Statement & Budget Report Jun 2010 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on household income in 2009/2010 No Excel File
The effects of taxes and benefits on income inequality in 1980-2010 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2010 No Excel File
Budget Report 2011 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2011 No Excel File
Budget Report 2012 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2012 No Excel File
Budget Report 2013 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2013 No Excel File
Budget Report 2014 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2014 No Excel File
Budget Report Mar 2015 No Excel File
Budget Report Jul 2015 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2015 No Excel File
Budget Report 2016 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2016 No Excel File
Budget Report Mar 2017 No Excel File
Budget Report Nov 2017 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2017 No Excel File
Budget Report 2018 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2018 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2019 No Excel File
Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2020 No Excel File